Tuesdays with Edwards!
For those who might be just joining us….
A Treatise Concerning
Religious Affections is one of Edwards’ most widely read and influential works, and has come to be viewed as a classic in Christian literature; its popularity and influence attested to by the fact that since its original publication in 1746 it has never been out of print.
In the second part of his book, Edwards outlines twelve signs which neither prove nor disprove one’s affections to be truly gracious. For each of these signs, Edwards shows why a spiritually healthy Christian would and even should exhibit these signs; and then shows why it should not be looked at as a certain sign that it is a proof of saving grace…though sometimes he reverses the order and does the negative before the positive.
So far we have seen that Edwards believed it doesn’t prove one way or the other that religious affections are truly spiritual because:
- They are raised very high.
- They have great effects on the body.
- They cause one to talk a lot about God and religion.
- They inexplicably come about.
- They come with passages of Scripture being brought to mind.
- That there is an appearance of love in them.
- That there are many kinds of religious affections together.
- That they come in a specific or commonly experienced order.
- That they dispose people to spend much time in religious activity.
- That they lead people to praise and glorify God.
In today’s post, we are continuing Edwards’ eleventh false positive: “that they make persons that have them, exceeding confident that what they experience is divine, and that they are in a good estate.” You can imagine that this needs some explaining, so he spends significantly more time on this. In the last “Tuesdays with Edwards,” he showed how false humility is one of the reasons why being personally confident of having God’s grace can be only a false positive. In today’s selection, Edwards explains the importance of having a proper understanding of what faith is (and what it isn’t) in understanding that this is a false positive.
You can read Religious Affections in its entirety at www.edwards.yale.edu. This selection is from Religious Affections, ed. John E, Smith, The Works of Jonathan Edwards, vol. 2 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959) Pages 175-178.
And here I can’t but observe, that there are certain doctrines often preached to the people, which need to be delivered with more caution and explanation than they frequently are; for as they are by many understood, they tend greatly to establish this delusion and false confidence of hypocrites. The doctrines I speak of are those of Christians living by faith, not by sight; their giving glory to God, by trusting him in the dark; living upon Christ, and not upon experiences; not making their good frames the foundation of their faith: which are excellent and important doctrines indeed, rightly understood, but corrupt and destructive, as many understand them. The Scripture speaks of living or walking by faith, and not by sight, in no other way than these, viz. a being governed by a respect to eternal things, that are the objects of faith, and are not seen, and not by a respect to temporal things, which are seen; and believing things revealed that we never saw with bodily eyes: and also living by faith in the promise of future things; without yet seeing or enjoying the things promised, or knowing the way how they can be fulfilled. This will be easily evident to anyone that looks over the scriptures which speak of faith in opposition to sight; as II Corinthians 4:18 and II Corinthians 5:7; Hebrews 11:1, 8, 13, 17, 27, 29; Romans 8:24; John 20:29. But this doctrine, as it is understood by many, is that Christians ought firmly to believe and trust in Christ, without spiritual sight or light, and although they are in a dark dead frame, and, for the present, have no spiritual experiences or discoveries. And it is truly the duty of those who are thus in darkness, to come out of darkness into light, and believe. But that they should confidently believe and trust, while they yet remain without spiritual light or sight, is an antiscriptural and absurd doctrine. The Scripture is ignorant of any such faith in Christ of the operation of God, that is not founded in a spiritual sight of Christ. That believing on Christ, which accompanies a title to everlasting life, is a seeing the Son, and believing on him, John 6:40. True faith in Christ is never exercised, any further than persons behold “as in a glass, the glory of the Lord,” and have “the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ” (II Corinthians 3:18 and II Corinthians 4:6). They into whose minds “the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God,” does not shine: they believe not (II Corinthians 4:4). That faith, which is without spiritual light, is not the faith of the children of the light, and of the day; but the presumption of the children of darkness. And therefore to press and urge them to believe, without any spiritual light or sight, tends greatly to help forward the delusions of the prince of darkness. Men not only can’t exercise faith without some spiritual light, but they can exercise faith only just in such proportion as they have spiritual light. Men will trust in God no further than they know him: and they can’t be in the exercise of faith in him one ace further than they have a sight of his fullness and faithfulness in exercise. Nor can they have the exercise of trust in God, any further than they are in a gracious frame. They that are in a dead carnal frame, doubtless ought to trust in God; because that would be the same thing as coming out of their bad frame, and turning to God: but to exhort men confidently to trust in God, and so hold up their hope and peace, though they are not in a gracious frame, and continue still to be so, is the same thing in effect, as to exhort them confidently to trust in God, but not with a gracious trust: and what is that but a wicked presumption? It is just so impossible for men to have a strong or lively trust in God, when they have no lively exercises of grace, or sensible Christian experiences, as it is for them to be in the lively exercises of grace, without the exercises of grace.
‘Tis true that it is the duty of God’s people to trust in him, when in darkness, and though they remain still in darkness, in that sense, that they ought to trust in God when the aspects of his providence are dark, and look as though God had forsaken them, and did not hear their prayers, and many clouds gather, and many enemies surround them, with a formidable aspect, threatening to swallow them up, and all events of providence seem to be against them, all circumstances seem to render the promises of God difficult to be fulfilled, and God must be trusted out of sight, i.e. when we can’t see which way it is possible for him to fulfill his word, everything but God’s mere word makes it look unlikely, so that if persons believe, they must hope against hope. Thus the ancient patriarchs, and Job, and the Psalmist and Jeremiah, Daniel, Shadrach, Meshech and Abednego, and the apostle Paul gave glory to God by trusting in God in darkness. And we have many instances of such a glorious victorious faith in the eleventh of the Hebrews. But how different a thing is this, from trusting in God without spiritual sight, and being at the same time in a dead and carnal frame!
There is also such a thing as spiritual light’s being let into the soul in one way, when it is not in another; and so there is such a thing as the saints trusting in God, and also knowing their good estate, when they are destitute of some kinds of experience. As for instance, they may have clear views of God’s sufficiency and faithfulness, and so confidently trust in him, and know that they are his children; and at the same time, not have those clear and sweet ideas of his love, as at other times: for it was thus with Christ himself in his last passion. And they may have views of much of God’s sovereignty, holiness and all-sufficiency, enabling them quietly to submit to him, and exercise a sweet and most encouraging hope in God’s fulness, when they are not satisfied of their own good estate. But how different things are these, from confidently trusting in God, without spiritual light or experience!
Those that thus insist on persons living by faith, when they have no experience, and are in very bad frames, are also very absurd in their notions of faith. What they mean by faith is, believing that they are in a good estate. Hence they count it a dreadful sin for them to doubt of their state, whatever frames they are in, and whatever wicked things they do, because ’tis the great and heinous sin of unbelief; and he is the best man, and puts most honor upon God, that maintains his hope of his good estate the most confidently and immovably, when he has the least light or experience; that is to say, when he is in the worst and wickedest frame and way; because, forsooth, that is a sign that he is strong in faith, giving glory to God, and against hope believes in hope. But what Bible do they learn this notion of faith out of, that it is a man’s confidently believing that he is in a good estate?
If this be faith, the Pharisees had faith in an eminent degree; some of which, Christ teaches, committed the unpardonable sin against the Holy Ghost. The Scripture represents faith, as that by which men are brought into a good estate; and therefore it can’t be the same thing, as believing that they are already in a good estate. To suppose that faith consists in persons believing that they are in a good estate, is in effect the same thing, as to suppose that faith consists in a person’s believing that he has faith, or in believing that he believes.
Indeed persons doubting of their good estate, may in several respects arise from unbelief. It may be from unbelief, or because they have so little faith, that they have so little evidence of their good estate: if they had more experience of the actings of faith, and so more experience of the exercise of grace, they would have clearer evidence that their state was good; and so their doubts would be removed. And then their doubting of their state may be from unbelief thus, when though there be many things that are good evidences of a work of grace in ’em, yet they doubt very much whether they are really in a state of favor with God, because it is they, those that are so unworthy, and have done so much to provoke God to anger against them. Their doubts in such a case arise from unbelief, as they arise from want of a sufficient sense of, and reliance on the infinite riches of God’s grace, and the sufficiency of Christ for the chief of sinners. They may also be from unbelief, when they doubt of their state, because of the mystery of God’s dealings with them: they are not able to reconcile such dispensations with God’s favor to them: or when they doubt whether they have any interest in the promises, because the promises from the aspects of providence, appear so unlikely to be fulfilled; the difficulties that are in the way, are so many and great. Such doubting arises from want of dependance upon God’s almighty power, and his knowledge and wisdom, as infinitely above theirs. But yet, in such persons, their unbelief, and their doubting of their state, are not the same thing; though one arises from the other.